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Guide História Vulgar (Portuguese Edition)

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Eyewear Aviators Wayfarer Pilot Square. The language was used for literary purposes from the final years of the 12th century to roughly the middle of the 14th century in what are now Spain and Portugal and was, almost without exception, the only language used for the composition of lyric poetry. The main secular poetic genres were the cantigas d'amor male-voiced love lyric , the cantigas d'amigo female-voiced love lyric and the cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer including a variety of genres from personal invective to social satire, poetic parody and literary debate.

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All told, nearly 1, poems survive in these three genres, and there is a corpus of over cantigas de Santa Maria narrative poems about miracles and hymns in honor of the Holy Virgin. King Dinis of Portugal , who also contributed with extant texts, more than any other author to the secular poetic genres, made the language official in Portugal in Until then, Latin had been the official written language for royal documents; the spoken language did not have a name and was simply known as lingua vulgar "ordinary language", that is Vulgar Latin until it was named "Portuguese" in King Dinis' reign.

Compared to the differences in Ancient Greek dialects, the alleged differences between 13th-century Portuguese and Galician are trivial. As a result of political division, Galician-Portuguese lost its unity when the County of Portugal separated from the Kingdom of Galicia in a dependent kingdom of Leon to establish the Kingdom of Portugal.

Galician-Portuguese - Wikipedia

The Galician and Portuguese versions of the language then diverged over time as they followed independent evolutionary paths. Meanwhile, Galician was influenced by the neighbouring Leonese language, especially during the time of kingdoms of Leon and Leon-Castile, and in the 19th and 20th centuries, it has been influenced by Castilian. Two cities at the time of separation, Braga and Porto , were within the County of Portugal and have remained within Portugal. Galician was the main written language in Galicia till the 16th century, but later it was displaced by Castilian Spanish , which was the official language of the Crown of Castille.

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Galician slowly became mainly an oral language, preserved by the majority rural or "uneducated" population living in the villages and towns, and Castilian was taught as the "correct" language to the bilingual educated elite in the cities. During most of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, its written use was largely reduced to popular literature and theatre and private letters. In the 19th century a true literature in Galician emerged during the Rexurdimento , followed by the apparition of journals and, in the 20th century, scientific publications.

Because until comparatively recently, most Galicians lived in many small towns and villages in a relatively remote and mountainous land, the language changed very slowly and was only very slightly influenced from outside the region. That situation made Galician remain the vernacular of Galicia until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and its most spoken language till the early 21st century.

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Modern Galician was only officially recognized by the Second Spanish Republic in the s as a co-official language with Castilian within Galicia. The recognition was revoked by the regime of Francisco Franco but was restored after his death. The linguistic classification of Galician and Portuguese is still discussed today.

There are those among Galician independence groups who demand their reunification as well as Portuguese and Galician philologists who argue that both are dialects of a common language rather than two separate ones. The Fala language , spoken in a small region of the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura , underwent a similar development as Galician. Today Galician is the regional language of Galicia sharing co-officiality with Spanish , and it is spoken by the majority of its but with a large decline of use and efficient knowledge among the younger generations, and the phonetics and lexicon of many occasional users is heavily influenced by Spanish.

Portuguese continues to grow and, today, is the sixth most spoken language in the world.

History of Portuguese

Later, all the affricate sibilants became fricatives, with the apico-alveolar and lamino-alveolar sibilants remaining distinct for a time but eventually merging in most dialects. Due to the vast expanse of the Portuguese Empire , there are also numerous words that entered English see: List of English words of Portuguese origin such as albino , baroque , mosquito , potato , savvy and zebra.

Both in morphology and in syntax , Portuguese represents an organic transformation of Latin without the direct intervention of any foreign language. Some of the changes began during the Empire , others took place later. A few words remained virtually unchanged, like carro , taberna "tavern" , or even returned to a form close to the original, such as coxa "thigh" — in this case, however, only the spelling looks identical: Learned Latinisms were formed in the late Middle Ages, due to the use of Church Latin by the Catholic Church , and during the Renaissance , when Classical antiquity in general, and Literary Latin in particular, enjoyed great prestige.

Many erudite Greek words and combining elements were also introduced or reintroduced in this way. Because of this, many Latin words are still familiar to Portuguese speakers. Later Latinisms are marked with L. Palatalization of voiceless stops—the consonants [k] and [t] assimilated with the high vowels [e] and [i] , and with the semivowel [j].

Voicing —some consonants did not disappear but rather evolved with voiceless stops becoming voiced stops and voiced stops becoming voiced fricatives in certain positions, a common type of sound change:. Lenition —consonant clusters, especially long geminate consonants, were simplified:. Phoneme [b] evolved as [v]. Elision —the consonants [l] and [n] of Vulgar Latin were deleted between vowels, after which sometimes the vowels around them coalesced, or an epenthetic semivowel was introduced between them.

Original geminates [ll] , [nn] persisted, later becoming single [l] , [n]. This change produced one of the most striking phonological differences between Portuguese and Spanish. The history of nasal vowels in hiatus with a previous or following vowel is complex, depending on the identity of the two vowels and the position of the stress. If the vowels were near each other, they collapsed into a single vowel nasal or oral, according to the nasality of the stressed vowel:.

If the first vowel was [i] , however, nasalization evolved to a palatal nasal consonant, inserted between the two vowels:. Progressive nasalization —The spread of nasalization forward from a nasal consonant, especially [m]. Epenthesis —the insertion of a sound to break up a combination of vowels which was difficult to pronounce:. Dissimilation —Modification of a sound by the influence of neighbouring sounds; similar became different over time, so as to ease pronunciation.

Metathesis —a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. Old Portuguese had seven sibilants: This appears to have happened no earlier than the seventeenth century, on the evidence of the spelling system used by Alexandre de Rhodes to represent Middle Vietnamese. However, this change happened after the colonization of Brazil, and never affected Brazilian Portuguese. When final, this sound is sometimes not pronounced at all.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Iberian Romance languages and Galician-Portuguese. This section does not cite any sources.